A Medicare license revocation can drastically affect a provider or practice; for example, more than 90% of primary care providers accept Medicare, and Medicare beneficiaries account for at least 50% of primary care physicians’ patient population. A revocation can jeopardize providers’ livelihood and lead to other consequences, including loss of hospital staff privileges, bars on reenrollment, and harm to a provider’s reputation within the medical community. Despite these penalties, as Medicare revocation rules evolved, CMS broadened the language permitting the agency to revoke a license, without much guidance or specificity, leaving providers with little information on the exact behavior they must avoid to prevent a revocation.
Since 2008, CMS has significantly expanded the instances in which a provider’s Medicare license can be revoked. In 2008, CMS added a new reason for revocation, 42 C.F.R. § 424.535(a)(10), which allows CMS to revoke a provider’s Medicare license if the provider does not document or does not provide CMS access to certain documentation. In 2014, CMS added a new section to 424.535(a)(8), section (a)(8)(ii).
Under an (a)(8) revocation, CMS can revoke a provider’s enrollment in Medicare if the provider commits certain abuses related to billing. Prior to 2014, under the original rule, an (a)(8) revocation was limited to specific circumstances in which the provider submitted claims for services that could not have been provided to the individual on a the date of those services. These circumstances could include, the beneficiary is deceased, the physician or beneficiary is not in the location where the service were provided, or when the necessary equipment for the service were not in the location where the services occurred.