On September 30, 2021, the Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) issued guidance to help consumers, businesses, and healthcare entities understand when the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule applies to disclosures and requests for information about an individual’s COVID-19 vaccination status. As a preliminary note, the guidance reminds readers that the HIPAA Privacy Rule does not apply to employers or employment records. The Privacy Rule only applies to HIPAA covered entities, which include health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and healthcare providers that conduct standard electronic transactions and, in some cases, to their business associates.
The guidance initially answers a highly popular and controversial question in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the OCR guidance, the HIPAA Privacy Rule does not prohibit businesses or individuals from asking whether their customers or clients have received a COVID-19 vaccine. Because individuals or entities such as businesses are not covered entities, the Privacy Rule generally does not apply to them. The Privacy Rule does not regulate the ability of covered entities and business associates to request information from patients or visitors. Rather, the Privacy Rule regulates how and when covered entities and business associates are permitted to use and disclose protected health information (PHI), for example COVID-19 vaccination status, that covered entities and business associates create, receive, maintain, or transmit. In the opposite direction, the Privacy Rule does not prevent customers or clients of a business from disclosing whether they have been vaccinated. The Privacy Rule does not apply to individuals’ disclosures about their own PHI.
The guidance proceeds to inform readers that employers are not prohibited under the Privacy Rule from requiring employees to disclose whether they have received a COVID-19 vaccine to the employer, clients, or other parties. Generally, the Privacy Rule does not regulate what information can be requested from employees as part of the terms and conditions of employment that an employer may impose on its employees. However, other federal or state laws address terms and conditions of employment. Federal anti-discrimination laws generally do not prevent an employer from choosing to require that all employees physically entering the workplace be vaccinated against COVID-19 and provide documentation or other confirmation that they have met this requirement. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), documentation or other confirmation of vaccination must be kept confidential and stored separately from the employee’s personnel files. Similarly, the Privacy Rule does not prohibit a covered entity or business associate from requiring its employees to disclose to their employers or other parties whether employees have received a COVID-19 vaccine. The Privacy Rule also generally does not apply to employment records, including employment records held by covered entities and business associates acting in their capacity as employers.
Generally, the Privacy Rule prohibits a healthcare provider from disclosing to the individual’s employer or other party information about whether an individual has received a COVID-19 vaccine. The Privacy Rule prohibits covered entities and their business associates from using or disclosing an individual’s PHI, including COVID-19 vaccination status, except with the individual’s authorization or as otherwise expressly permitted or required by the Privacy Rule. Where a covered entity or business entity is permitted or required to disclose an individual’s PHI, generally it is limited to disclosing only the PHI that is reasonably necessary to accomplish the state purpose for the disclosure.
For over 35 years, Wachler & Associates has represented healthcare providers and suppliers nationwide in a variety of health law matters. If you or your healthcare entity has any questions pertaining to HIPAA or healthcare compliance, please contact an experienced healthcare attorney at 248-544-0888 or firstname.lastname@example.org.