In September 2014, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights (OCR) released guidance to assist covered entities in understanding their obligations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule in light of the Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in United States v. Windsor. In Windsor, the Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which restricted interpretations of “spouse” and “marriage” in federal law to opposite-sex marriages, as a violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. As a result, OCR opined that covered entities and applicable business associates must take into account lawfully married same-sex couples when applying federal law.
OCR noted that the Privacy Rule’s definition of “family members” includes the terms “spouse” and “marriage.” Under the Privacy Rule, a spouse is defined as any individual who is in a legally valid marriage sanctioned by a state, territory, or foreign jurisdiction (assuming that the marriage performed in a foreign jurisdiction would be recognized by a U.S. jurisdiction). OCR clarified that “marriage” includes same-sex marriages, a family member includes dependents of that marriage, and that these terms apply to individuals who are legally married, “whether or not they live or receive services in a jurisdiction that recognizes their marriage.”
OCR also provided two examples how this clarified definition of a family member would be applied to specific provisions in the Privacy Rule. Specifically, §164.510(b) Standard: uses and disclosures for involvement in the individual’s care and notification purposes allows protected health information to be shared with a patient’s spouse and family members. OCR opined that in light of Windsor, covered entities must consider legally married same-sex spouses, regardless of where they live, to be family members.
In addition, §164.502(a)(5)(i) Use and disclosure of genetic information for underwriting purposes prohibits health plans from disclosing or using genetic information for underwriting purposes. Applying Windsor, OCR stated that the genetic tests of a same-sex spouse of the individual, or the manifestation of a disease or disorder in the same-sex spouse of the individual would fall within this prohibition.
OCR concluded by indicating that it planned to provide more written guidance or rulemaking that would address the topic of same-sex spouses acting as personal representatives under the Privacy Rule.
Wachler & Associates continues to monitor and provide timely updates on important developments under HIPAA. If you have questions regarding OCR’s guidance, how the Windsor decision may impact your practice, or a more general HIPAA inquiry, please contact an experienced healthcare attorney at 248-544-0888 or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. To stay updates on healthcare news, subscribe to Wachler & Associates’ health law blog by adding your email address and clicking “Subscribe” in the window on the top right of this page.